A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzabar

A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzibar... Now what is between? For the world wide classical era philatelist and stamp collector, a country specific philatelic survey is offered by the blog author, Jim Jackson, with two albums: Big Blue, aka Scott International Part 1 (checklists available), and Deep Blue, aka William Steiner's Stamp Album Web PDF pages. Interested? So into the Blues...

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Austria & L-V - 1860-64 Franz Josef & Coat of Arms Issues

Austria 1860 Scott 14 5kr red "Franz Josef"
Into the Deep Blue
The early Austria 1860-61 & 1863 issues continue with embossed printing, introduced with the 1858-59 issue, and covered in the last post.

Franz Josef was placed on the 1860-61 five stamp issue, with his profile portrait switched from facing left to facing right.

And then the 1863 issue of five stamps changed the embossed center to the "Coat of Arms".

Lombardy-Venetia likewise had a two stamp 1861-62 and a five stamp 1863-65 issue.

The embossed technique for stamp printing has never been very common.

Other countries that used this printing method include early Germany, Bavaria, Lubeck, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Prussia,Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein, Wurttemberg, early Sardinia and Italy, Heligoland, and Gambia (extensively). That's about it. Can readers think of any other examples?

Update: Readers have added Great Britain Scott 5-7, and,of course, early Portugal.

Newspaper stamps were also used extensively in Austria.  We will also take a look at them in the next section.

A closer look at the stamps and issues
Austria: 100 Neu-Kreuzer = 1 Gulden (1858)
Lombardy-Venetia: 100 Soldi = 1 Florin (1858)
Austria 1860 Scott 12 2kr yellow "Franz Josef"
In December, 1860, a five stamp embossed "Franz Josef", facing right, issue was released for Austria.

They are perforated 14. Government authorized reprints, intended for collectors, were printed between 1866-1887, but these perfs range from 9 to 13.5.

The bottom denomination, the 2 kreuzer, was printed in yellow.

41,290,000 stamps were printed for the 2 kr, the lowest output for the issue. CV is $30+.

Let's change tints for a better look at the design.

Austria 1860 Scott 12 2kr yellow "Franz Josef"
Cyan tint
The stamp had a fine machine lathe-work design in an oval pattern, with the embossed portrait in the center.

Only a minimalist "Kreuzer" and "2" are inscripted on the stamp. Considering the multiple languages used in the Austrian Monarchy Empire, that was probably necessary.

Austria 1860 Scott 12 2kr yellow "Franz Josef"
Orange Filter
Using an orange filter, which washes out the color, one can appreciate the fine center embossed portrait.

One can argue that this issue, so exquisite and classical, is at the apogee of clean design, and has never been surpassed. !!

Austria 1860 Scott 13 3kr green
The 3kr green has the second lowest production (76,800,000), and the CV is $30.

The entire issue was valid until May 31, 1864.

Austria 1860 Scott 14 5kr red "Franz Josef"
Here is a lighter shade for the 4kr red. The header stamp for this post shows a richer color. The Austria "Netto katalog" parses 2-3 color shades for each denomination of the issue.

Austria 1860 Scott 15 10kr brown
The 10kr brown had a production of 153,960,000 stamps, while the 5kr red had 174,760,000. The CV for these stamps is a modest $1 and $3 respectively. One could clearly have a lot of fun collecting varieties, uses, postmarks etc for these stamps.

Although the quantities seem large for the classical era, they are not even close to the top of the list. For instance the 1893 US Columbians - the 1c deep blue, and the 2c brown violet - had production runs of 449,195,550 and 1,464,588,750.

Austria 1860 Scott 15 15kr blue
The Free Imperial City of Trieste was Austria's main port during the 19th century. Collecting postmarks from the wide-ranging Austrian Empire could be an interesting diversion for the WW classical era collector.

Austria 1863 Scott 18 3kr green "Coat of Arms"
Perf 14
On July 1, 1863, a new five stamp embossed set with the "Coat of Arms" (Double Eagle) was issued.

The perforation is 14.

Imperial Coat of Arms 1816-1866
Empire of Austria
The imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria was used between 1815-1866. Austria was the largest country in the German Confederation.

Austria 1863 Scott 20 10kr blue, Perf 14
CV for the five stamp Perf 14 set ranges from $10+ - $100+.

Austria 1864 Scott 22 2kr yellow
Perf 9.5
The 1963-64 stamps of the set had their perforations changed to 9 1/2. The perf change is given major numbers in the catalogues. (Isn't it interesting how some countries are "favored" with major numbers for perf changes, while other countries, perhaps with collectors who are not as astute with lobbying, have minor numbers for their perf changes.)

Austria 1863 Scott 24 5kr rose, Perf 9.5
The issue was initially unwatermarked, although for stamps produced after July, 1864, a large BRIEF-MARKEN watermark in the sheet was used. Only some stamps will show a portion of the watermark. (I don't have any.)

There are official reprints that were produced between 1884-94, and have perfs ranging from 10,5-13.5.

CV for the five stamp 9.5 perf set ranges from <$1-$10+. 

Austria 1863 Scott 26 15kr yellow brown
As three of the stamps (5kr rose, 10kr blue, 15kr yellow brown) only have a used CV of <$1-$3+, a collection of these stamps, in the pursuit of socked on the nose (SON) cancellations, would be interesting indeed. !!

Lombardy-Venetia 1861 Scott 13 5s red "Franz Josef"
Lombardy-Venetia had their own issues of these stamps, substituting "Soldi" for "Kreuzer".

(Of course, recall that Austria lost most of Lombardy (Milan) to Sardinia in July, 1859.)

The "Franz Josef" embossed portrait can be found on a 1861 5s red (shown here), and a 1862 10s brown.

The perf is 14, while reprints have perfs ranging from 9-13.

CV  is $7 and $70 for the two stamps respectively.

Lombardy-Venetia 1864 Scott 22 5s rose 
"Coat of Arms"; Perf 9.5
The coat of arms embossed stamps for Lombardy-Venetia are 1863 perf 14 (five stamps, CV $35+-$300+), and 1864-65 perf 9.5 (five stamps, CV $10+-$600). The perf 9.5 5s rose (shown here) is only CV $10+, while the perf 9.5 2s yellow is CV $600+ unused! Reprints are perf 10.5-13.

Austria Newspaper 1859 Scott P6 (1kr) lilac, type II
Newspaper stamps were also used extensively throughout the Empire, and between 1851-1866, the same Austrian stamps were also used in Lombardy-Venetia.

I only have a partially clipped 1859 Newspaper stamp, but interesting nevertheless, as it is still on paper.

The embossed portrait of Franz Josef is the same as the regular 1858-59 Austrian issue, including two types: 1858 type 1 with the loops at the back of the head broken; and 1859 type II, where the loops are closed.

The stamp shown is a Type II (loops closed).

CV for Type I/II is $600+-$300 respectively.

Austria 1863 Scott P8 (1.05 kr) gray
The 1863 Austrian "Coat of Arms" regular issue also had an associated newspaper stamp- the (1.05kr) gray. There are also gray lilac and brownish lilac minor number shades in Scott.

1867 Scott P9 (1kr) violet, type I "Mercury"
The coarse print 1867 Scott P9 (1kr) "Mercury" is considered Type I by Scott. The back of the helmet fades into the background, and is not well defined.

The color is "violet", though Scott has a note that the color shades vary a lot: from gray to lilac brown and deep violet. This stamp looks ultramarine to me.

1876 Scott P9B (1kr) violet, type III
This 1876 Scott P9B is a Type III, defined by the the outer white circle around the head is open at the top.

1876 Scott P9Bd (1kr) violet, type II
For Type II, the helmet is clearly defined. There are four thin short discrete lines in front of the wing.

1880 Scott P10 1/2kr blue green
The 1880 newspaper stamp can be found in blue green (P10)  (above), and yellow green (P10a) (below)

1880 Scott P10a 1/2kr yellow green
Out of the Blue
Austria is one of those countries, where, if one wanted to specialize, there would be a whole "world" to explore! (And it would be helpful to brush up on the German too. ;-)

Note: "Coat of Arms" image appears to be in the public domain.

Comments appreciated!

Friday, August 11, 2017

A Visit from Dilip, and The Limaye Inventory Spreadsheet for BB collectors is finished!

Dan Kimble, Jim Jackson, & Dilip Limaye
chatting about all things philatelic
Into the Deep Blue
Today was a very pleasant day indeed as we got to meet Dilip Limaye, who was in the area visiting family.

Dilip, Dan Kimble (of Postmark Calendar fame), and myself spent several hours discussing all things philatelic, as only stamp collectors can do with each other.

But, the really big news for users of the '69/'97 BB checklist, is Dilip, based on the checklist, has finished and completed the Excel Spreadsheet Workbook with all the A-Z Country Tabs.

And, he is also offering Single Alphabet Counties Spreadsheets ("A" countries, "B" countries etc) individually from "A" to "Z", if the collector would rather work on the BB inventory in bite sized portions.

And, he has revised and updated the Introduction and User Guide.

O.K., but where can the collector find these goodies?


The Limaye Inventory Spreadsheet for Big Blue Collectors post.

And, for future reference, one can always locate the above post by scrolling down the left side past the "Country Posts" to the "Selected posts of interest from the blog" section.

Part of Deep Blue (Steiner) and Big Blue pulled out for examination
Out of the Blue
Dilip - On behalf of all the WW Scott International 1840-1940 Part I (Big Blue) users everywhere, we are truly grateful!

The combination, Dilip's A-Z spreadsheet and my BB checklist, offer a powerful inventory and "want list" tool for the WW BB classical era collector

One other very important outcome for BB checklist users...

Dilip and I worked together the last several months to eliminate any discrepancies between the BB checklists, and his spreadsheet. A number of errors (but, fortunately, still less than 1%) were corrected in my checklist.

The BB checklists, as of today and recently, have been updated, and reflect the elimination of these prior inadvertent errors.

If you downloaded an earlier '69/'97  checklist, and you are puzzled by a difference in a BB space(s) and your "old" checklist, compare to see if the current BB checklists explains the situation, or corrected an error.

Or, you might just want to work off the current BB checklists. !!

The BB checklists  are updated by me in real time if a checklist error is discovered. The BB checklists, as currently publish here on this blog, always reflect the latest understanding.

To keep the current checklists accurate, the posts are corrected in two places every time an error is found.


Jim Jackson

Note: Sorry, I have not kept an "errata" update list for those with "old" checklists. But, be assured that the error rate for "old" checklists is still much less than 1%.

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Crete - Bud's Big Blue

1905 Scott 80 1d rose carmine & deep brown
 " Zeus as a Bull Abducting Europa (Cortyna Coin)"
Bud's Big Blue
Bud's Observations
When I started writing this comment, I thought to summarize Crete’s postal history in a few paragraphs. I soon found that it’s not possible in so short a space. Cretan stamps pop up in BB’s Austria, Italy, Greece and France sections, and could have in Turkey, Russia and Great Britain -- all occasioned by Crete’s tumultuous history in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fortunately, Rienk Feenstra (and friends) wrote a careful study titled KPHTH - CRETE, Postal History (Athens, 2001) which I highly recommend.

The scans below begin with the British contribution, four stamps that are heavily forged. The clue to the genuine is the complete circle with a dot that appears above the numerals. Heraklion cancels are common on both genuine and forged copies. BB affords no space to the Russian contributions, but five appear on the supplement page, top row, four of which bear Rethymno cancels. Again, forgeries are common. 

Crete’s own stamps often feature the reigning Greek King as well as ancient sculpture and coins (see above, Zeus as a bull abducting Europa). Adding to the complexity are stamps issued in 1905 by revolutionaries at Therissos (bottom of supplement page).

Small island; big postal history.

Census: 65 in BB spaces, six tipped in, 13 on supplement page

Jim's Observations
Hermes, Hera, Minos, and Triton; all part of the Cretan-Greek mythology. These "classical" stamps reflect the classical Greek era. Perhaps that is why I find these issues so very attractive

Big Blue presents a nice selection of these (mostly) classical mythology themed stamps. Included are four issues from the 1899 British Sphere Administration stamps. But there are 18 additional stamps from the 1899 Russian Sphere of Administration that are not in Big Blue, and could be collected.

Crete Blog Post and Checklist

Page 1





Page 2




Page 1

Comments appreciated!

Thursday, August 3, 2017

Austria 1858-59 Embossed Issues: Complete vs Broken Loops

Austria 1858 Scott 10a 10kr brown, Type I
"Emperor Franz Josef"
Into the Deep Blue
On November 1, 1858, a new set of stamps, featuring the 28 year old Emperor, Franz Josef I,  was released. There were five denominations for Austria, and five for Lombardy-Venetia.

The issues were valid throughout the Empire.

Emperor Franz Josef I
The embossed portrait of the emperor had him posed left with a laurel (bay) wreath crowning his head.

The 3r kreuzer stamp was changed in color from black to green in the middle of 1859, and the corresponding  3 soldi stamp likewise was changed in mid-1862.

The stamps were valid for use until May 31, 1864. In Lombardy (but not in Venetia), their use ceased in July 1859, due to the unfortunate turn of events (from the Austrian perspective) of having lost the lands to the Sardinians.

Because the stamps had embossed portrait flaws (broken loops- Type I), they was replaced fairly soon, as Type II (complete loops) had already appeared by December 1858.

Type II
Clearly, the most obvious sign for Type II (1859) stamps are the complete loops, resembling an "8".

But also, the wreath on Type II stamps project higher and sharper on top of the head, and the mouth and chin are more pronounced, and the nose is more pointed.

For the 5kr red, 10kr brown, and 15kr blue denominations, CV (used) ranges from $2-$4+  for the Type II, and $20+ for the Type I stamps.respectively.

For the Lombardy-Ventetia 5s red and 10s brown denominations, CV (used) is $10+-$20+ for Type II, and $40+-$140 for Type I stamps respectively.

If the WW collector has interest, a representative collection of Type I/Type II stamps is certainly possible without a large financial outlay.

Type I
The Type I (1858) stamps have broken loops, and the loops resemble a "3".

For Type I, the wreath does not project as much above head, and the nose, chin, and mouth are not as pronounced.

Now comes the big BUT...(the gray zone)

Some stamps that appear to not have a totally closed loop are not Type I, but actually are Type II!

More about that in the next section. !

A closer look at the stamps and issues
100 Neu-Kreuzer = 1 Guilden (1858)
100 Soldi = 1 Florin (1858)
Austria 1859 Scott 6 2kr yellow, T II
"Emperor Franz Josef"
The 2 kreuzer yellow is the lowest denomination. One has to admit it is difficult seeing the design, and even the denomination.

Austria 1859 Scott 6 2kr yellow, T II
Cyan Tint
In this case, I switched to "Cyan tint", which is an option in Windows Live Photo Gallery. Much easier to see the details, including the closed loops. But for the 2 kr, in contrast to the other denominations, the types are determined by the shape of the "2", rather than the state of the loops. !

Austria 1858-59 Scott 6 2kr yellow
"2": Type I vs Type II
Here is an illustration from Michel catalogue which shows the types. Compared to Type I, the "2" of Type II is more curved and evenly thick. There are two horizontal lines above and below the tail of the "2".

Austria Scott 6 2 kr Type II
"2" has a more curved foot of uniform thickness
And here is a close-up of the "2" for the stamp.

Austria Scott 6 2 kr Type II- Cyan Tint
"2" has a more curved foot of uniform thickness
The "Cyan tint" reveals even more clearly that the "2" is a Type II. CV for Type II is $50+, while $450 for Type I. !

Austria 1859 Scott 7 3kr black,
"Emperor Franz Josef"
Type I or Type II?

Type II has a CV of $240, while Type I has a CV of $300. This off-center stamp no doubt is worth less.

I was certain this was Type I. Clearly, the loop is not closed! On the other hand, the loop is not in a "3" shape either, the ideal characteristic of Type I.

Austria 1859 Scott 7 3kr black close-up Type II
Not a T I- no, the slightly broken loop doesn't count!
Yes, it is true, that the wreath on top of the head has a spiky appearance, as one would see with Type II.

But it was not until I consulted the Austria Specialized 1850-1900 Ferchenbauer catalogue, where it states that Type II, for the 3kr black, has a color spot in the white borderline medallion at about the 10:30 clock position. !

Sure enough, there it was! I was stunned..

Black  color spot in the medallion's white border line top left
And Ferchenbauer states that Type I does not have this spot!

So, I came to the realization that Type I/Type II is more than just evaluating loops in a naive way.

For the "gray zone" (questionable loop opening), one has to evaluate the whole stamp.

Austria 1859 Scott 9 5kr red, Type II
The 5kr red has a CV of $2+  for the least expensive catalogue number. One can imagine the fun that could be had with this stamp, collecting the many postmarks, color varieties, variations, and usages ( on and off paper (CV $6+ on cover).

The 5kr comes in two Ferchenbauer subtypes - here the inner thinner upper horizontal frameline is not broken (subtype I). The other variation (subtype II) has a broken frame-line.

Austria 1859 Scott 9 5kr red close-up
Type II = Loops Complete
Prominent pointed nose, mouth, chin, spiky head wreath
This stamp is obviously a Type II by glancing at the closed loops.

But lets concentrate on the other characteristics here.

Note the rather grotesque pointed nose and lips = Type II.

Apparently, it should be easy to look at secondary characteristics and also quickly determine type, yes?

No! Do not get overconfident.

Many Type II's are not nearly as obvious face-wise, as this one.

I find that the spiky wreath on top of the head to be a bit more reliable than face characteristics.

(In other words, I've been fooled.)

Austria 1858 Scott 9a 5kr red
Here is another 5kr red. The loops appear to be frayed, but does not have an absolutely classic "3" shape.

Austria 1858 Scott 9a 5kr red, Type I closeup
Still, one can say that it has a "frayed" "3" shape, which would argue for a Type I.

And the secondary characteristics are compatible too - blunted wreath top, and modest facial features.

White Border of Medallion is interrupted
on lower left
The clincher is that Ferchenbauer says the 5kr Type I has a medallion white border that is broken at about the 7:30 clock position. Do you see it?

Austria 1859 Scott 10 10kr brown, Type II
Lovely stamp! The 10kr brown has a CV of $4+ for the least expensive catalogue number.

Clearly, based on the closed loops, this is a Type II.

Austria 1859 Scott 10 10kr brown
T II close-up: Loops complete
But, let's look at the secondary characteristics.

The modestly spiky hair, especially the spike that drapes over the forehead, is compatible.

The nose and mouth are perhaps a bit prominent, but nothing to write home about.

Yes, this is Type II, but compared to the grotesque 5kr Type II example earlier, not nearly as easy in making the determination.

Austria 1859 Scott 10 10kr brown
Shade Variant; Type I or Type II?
This is a shade variant of the 10kr brown. One of the joys of early stamps is the inexact pigment science, leading to shades that can be identified for a certain time period etc.

But the larger question is- T I or T II?

Admittedly, some of the difficulty is because the loops are obscured by the cancel.

I'm going to leave this as an unknown, although I do have my suspicions. ;-)

Austria 1858 Scott 10a 10kr brown
Type I
This rather tired looking 10kr brown is clearly a Type I with the characteristic "3" loop shape.

Austria 1858 Scott 10a 10kr brown
Type I = Loops Broken
Note also the blunted wreath top and a nose that turns up slightly rather than pointed.

Type I: Under the "10" is a small vertical spot
The Ferchenbauer clincher is the small colored vertical spot under the "10", between the two horizontal lines.

Type I has the spot, Type II does not.

Now go back and check the 10kr brown unknown. What do you think?

Austria 1859 Scott 11 15kr blue, Type II
This Type II 15kr blue has a modest CV of ~ $3, which could mean this stamp may have possibilities as a one stamp study.

Austria 1859 Scott 11 15kr blue, Type II
Shade Variant
Another 15kr - but a shade variant.

Austria 1859 Scott 11 15kr blue, Type II
Shade Variant
Another shade variant. Also note the very good embossing detail for the laurel  wreath on this stamp.
I should note that the usual perforation found for the 1858-59 issue is Perf 14 1/2.

There were reprints (Type II) made of this issue later which have perfs of 10 1/2, 11, 12, 12 1/2, and 13.

Austria 1858 Scott 11a 15kr blue, Type I
This 15kr blue certainly appears to be Type I - open loop.

Austria 15 kr blue - Type I
Note the "3" shape of the loops, although it is still attached at the bottom.

The secondary face and wreath characteristics all appear modest- compatible with Type I.

Type I: Dots on the horizontal lines between "R" and the corner ornament
Type I: Corner ornament markings are different 
The Ferchenbauer catalogue also states that there are difference in the lower right corner of the stamp between Type I and Type II.

Type I (open loops) have two large blue dots placed on the horizontal lines between "R" and the corner ornament.

Type I also has differences in the design lines of the corner ornament itself. This will become apparent when we take a comparison look with Type II.

15 kr blue Type II - right lower corner
Note there are no colored dots on the horizontal lines between "R" and the corner ornament for T II. (Compare with Type I above.)

15 kr blue Type II corner ornament details
And note the horizontal separate convex lines in the upper part of the ornament in Type II.
(Compare with Type I (above nearby), where the lines are shorter and are stacked on each other.

Lombardy-Venetia 1858-62 Scott 8 3s black, Type II
Loops complete, Wreaths projects further from head
The Soldi issues for Lombardy-Venetia are, in large part, the same as the Austria issues, save for a change in denomination. That, of course, means Type I/Type II differences also.

This is clearly a Type II = Loops complete, on this 3s black.

The CV is $190. In general, the Lombardy-Venetia stamps have a higher CV than the Austria stamps.

Of course, recall that Austria lost Lombardy (Milan) to Sardinia in July, 1859.

Lombardy-Venetia 1858-62 Scott 9 5s red, Type II
The 5s red is the least expensive of the six stamp issue @ CV $20+.

This is clearly a Type II stamp.

Of interest, Mantova (Mantua) was part of the Lombardy region, but was not lost following the Battle of Solferino in 1859, but remained part of the Austrian Empire, along with Venetia.

Lombardy-Venetia 1858-62 Scott 9 5s red, 
Type II?
O.K., we come across another "gray zone" stamp - is this Type I or Type II?

Lombardy-Venetia 1858-62 Scott 9 5s red, 
Loop not completely closed, but still Type II?
Note the upper loop is not completely closed.Admittedly, since the loop is part of the embossed portrait, one might expect that that it might not exhibit perfection for the entire stamp run.

I strongly lean toward considering this a Type II.

The wreath is compatible with Type II, but I don't think it argues strongly for it.

And the nose and mouth seem a bit prominent, as one would expect with a Type II.

L-V 5s red T II - shape of lowest left corner ornament
Checking the Ferchenbauer catalogue, the 5s red Type II shows a red thick "three legged starfish draped on a rock" (I live in the Pacific NW!) ornament appearance in the far lowest left corner. This is found for Type II, while Type I has a different shape.

L-V 5s red T I - shape of lowest left corner ornament
(Image crop is from a T I stamp on internet- not my stamp)
In comparison, the far lowest left corner of a T I stamp for the L-V 5s red shows a red "four legged starfish draped on a rock". ;-)

Q.E.D. Type II. 

Lombardy-Venetia Scott 11 10s brown, Type II
This 10s brown is a Type II. CV is $20+.

Ferchenbauer also points out Type II has a lack of an upper serif on "1" (Type I has a serif), and the thickening of an upper section of "S" in SOLDI.

(The reader can tell I love Ferchenbauer. ;-)

Lombardy-Venetia Scott 12 15s blue, Type II
Nice stamp!

The 15s  blue Type II (I'm sure you agree with the type!) has a CV of $120+.

Note the "Venezia" (Venice) postmark.

L-V 15s blue - Type II
Frechenbauer says the T II 15s blues have a different corner ornament drawing design, compared to Type I.  I note horizontal convex lines in the upper corner ornament.

L-V 1858 Scott 12a 15s blue Type I
This stamp appears to be a Type I - open loops. The CV for a type I is $220+. !

Note the "Milano" postmark.for January 7th.

L-V 15s blue - Type I
Note the horizontal convex lines in the upper portion of the  corner ornament are squashed together.- in Type I. (Compare with Type II above nearby.) There are other differences as well.

Austria 1858 Scott 9a 5kr red, Type I
Out of the Blue
The largest surprise to me was that an open loop does not necessarily equate to Type I. ! Some "open loop" stamps turn out to be Type IIs. Certainly, a classical "3" shape to the loops is almost always Type I, but more minor (single) openings, such as the Austria 1859 Scott 7 3kr black I have, turned out to be Type II. !!

One needs to evaluate the whole stamp!

Note: The Franz Josef I portrait painting scan appears to be part of the public domain.
The "2" Kreuzer Type I/Type II graphic is from Michel, and used here for educational purposes.
The L-V 5s red T I image crop is from stampforgeries.com, and used with permission.

Comments appreciated!